Teaching Presence in K-12 Blended Learning Classes under the Alternative Delivery Mode

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Juliet Aleta R. Villanueva


Flexible learning options and blended learning programs continue to serve marginalized student populations under the Alternative Delivery Mode of the Philippine K-12 system. However, blended learning interactions in these programs remain hidden. This exploratory case study sought to capture the interactions and experiences in three blended learning classes through the elements of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework espoused by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000). Qualitative data were gathered through interviews, focus group discussions, class observations, stored data, and field notes to investigate teacher and student blended learning interactions. An adapted version of the survey instrument based on the framework was also utilized to validate qualitative findings. Using content analysis and descriptive statistics, the study indicated strong teaching presence demonstrated through the roles and actions of K-12 teachers and students which lead to learning community building. Students manifested teaching presence through directing and regulating their learning. Areas for improvement which relate to teaching presence were also revealed, particularly in the communication and the timeliness of feedback, and online facilitation of discourse. This study justifies the CoI as a practical framework to understand and guide teaching and learning in K-12 blended learning programs. To highlight the role of teachers in learning community building, a CoI framework for the K-12 and a self-reflection tool for teachers are being proposed. Changes to the categories and indicators of the presences are recommended to further affirm the framework’s applicability in the K-12 setting.

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How to Cite
Villanueva, J. A. R. (2021). Teaching Presence in K-12 Blended Learning Classes under the Alternative Delivery Mode. International Journal on Open and Distance E-Learning, 7(1). Retrieved from https://ijodel.upou.edu.ph/index.php/ijodel/article/view/33