Abstract Introduction Objectives Review of Related Studies Methodology Results and Discussion Conclusion References

Perceptions of Higher Education Faculty Regarding the Use of Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT) in Education

Martin Jerome G. Goli-Cruz

Educational Consultant, Artdialogo Asia, Philippines, [email protected]


This research delves into the perspectives of faculty members in higher education regarding the utilization of Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT) in the realm of education. Additionally, it examines the probable impacts of this technology on social transformation and academic settings in the Philippines. A research study was conducted wherein 20 faculty members from a state university in the Philippines were questioned to acquire their perspectives and firsthand encounters regarding the utilization of ChatGPT in their academic instruction. The research's findings showed that ChatGPT had both beneficial and detrimental effects on higher education. On the positive side, ChatGPT can be a helpful learning tool for students, especially for those who are introverted, and can simplify the repetitive tasks that educators perform while encouraging the growth of students' self-directed critical thinking skills. The utilization of ChatGPT may have adverse effects on students' critical thinking skills and promote excessive dependence on technology. Moreover, the research revealed that although the faculty members were cognizant of ChatGPT's existence, they did not entirely depend on technology to execute high- quality education. The efficacy of artificial intelligence and its incorporation in the realm of education, as per the respondents, was contingent upon the conscientiousness of the faculty and administrators in facilitating the enhancement of students' analytical and evaluative proficiencies.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ChatGPT, AI education


The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) tools, particularly the Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT), has garnered significant interest in the ever-evolving field of educational technology. As institutions explore the potential of these advancements, understanding faculty perspectives on the utilization of ChatGPT in their courses and analyzing the consequences of these perspectives on the teaching-learning process becomes crucial. This research aims to bridge the gap between faculty attitudes towards the incorporation of AI and the tangible effects of these perspectives on educational approaches.

The integration of AI has brought about a substantial change in the way students approach learning tasks. In today's society, where social responsibilities are in constant flux, and expectations are higher than ever, students find themselves under increased pressure. This pressure has prompted faculty members to recognize the need to update their teaching methods, especially in technology courses. AI has emerged as a catalyst for student-centered learning, providing personalized tutorials that significantly facilitate academic tasks.


The general objective of this research was to investigate the viewpoints of higher education instructors on the educational implications of ChatGPT. Specifically, the research intended to: (1) examine and analyze the attitudes and beliefs of faculty members towards the incorporation of ChatGPT in their educational courses; (2) investigate the specific effects and consequences of integrating ChatGPT into educational activities, focusing on the implications for teaching and learning processes; and (3) evaluate the role and impact of ChatGPT and AI in education in fostering social change within the educational context, considering its potential to influence pedagogical approaches and learning outcomes. By achieving these objectives, the research seeks to contribute valuable insights into the dynamic relationship between faculty perspectives and the practical implications of integrating ChatGPT into educational settings. This study aims to provide a foundation for informed decision-making and strategic implementation of AI tools in higher education.

Review of Related Studies

Anderson et al. (2018) have examined the potential of networked AI in improving human effectiveness, which has been recognized. Nevertheless, there are concerns that arise regarding the implications of interconnected artificial intelligence on human self-governance and capacity for action. The growing incorporation of AI systems such as ChatGPT in education is especially significant, leading to investigations into the potential influence on students' intellectual independence and ability to make decisions. This concern originates from John McCarthy's 1956 hypothesis, suggesting that machines have the ability to imitate different aspects of human learning.

Recent studies conducted by Atlas (2023), Chan and Hu (2023), and Luckin (2017) have shown a gradual increase in the use of AI in educational institutions with the aim of improving student learning. These scholars emphasize the capacity of AI to provide immediate customized feedback and adjust to various learning preferences. Through imparting AI knowledge to students, educational institutions strive to enable their active engagement in achieving the wider societal advantages that AI can provide.

The BEDP 2030 and the National AI Roadmap in the Philippines highlight endeavors to utilize predictive models for data-based decision-making and promote the development of AI technologies (Guey, 2021). Nevertheless, it is imperative to tackle obstacles such as the high expenses associated with installation and the lack of expertise in AI technology. It is advisable to promote cooperation between the industry and the education sector in order to close the skills gap and generate a workforce that is in line with the requirements of the Nilsson (2012) offers a historical viewpoint on the inception of AI, ascribing its origins to the concepts proposed by John McCarthy in 1955. McCarthy's con- ception of a computer endowed with cognitive capabilities similar to those of humans has established the philosophical basis for the advancement of AI from a theoretical idea to a practical technological actuality.

Duan et al. (2019) and Topol (2019) highlight the progress of artificial intelli- gence in replicating intelligent human behaviors. This perspective portrays AI as a tool that replicates and enhances human cognitive capacities, in accordance with the philosophical belief that technology enhances human abilities. In their extensive analysis, Baker and Smith (2019) propose a philosophical framework that classifies AI in education into three distinct categories: learner-oriented AI, instructor-oriented AI, and institutional system-oriented AI. This categorization highlights the significance of tailored artificial intelligence solutions in meeting the distinct requirements of learners, instructors, and educational systems.

According to Smith (2019), Teacher-Oriented AIEd plays a crucial role in em- powering educators and fostering innovation in the classroom. Artificial Intelli- gence in Education (AIEd) functions as a potent instrument to improve teaching methods, decrease workload, offer valuable insights into student progress, and promote the adoption of innovative teaching practices. Artificial intelligence is the cornerstone of all computer learning, and such systems will ultimately be in charge of all complex decision-making. Nevertheless, AI is a reality that will not go away. The learning technology of the future is AI. Our approach to education could be fundamentally changed by AI, which would make it more individual- ized, effective, and efficient. Reports from around the world indicate that AIEd is one of the most promising new areas in educational technology. Although it has been around for about 30 years, educators are still unsure of how to take full pedagogical advantage of it and how it can affect teaching and learning in higher education (Educause, 2018).

The UNESCO framework for artificial intelligence in education is outlined in their guide titled "AI and Education Guidance for Policy Makers" (2021) and promotes a humanistic approach, prioritizing the safeguarding of human rights and the cultivation of essential skills and values. The framework emphasizes the importance of efficient collaboration between humans and machines in dif- ferent areas of life, education, and employment, while giving significant value to human control within the realm of artificial intelligence. Chan's (2023) study em- phasizes the necessity of incorporating AI technologies to enhance skills such as digital competence and time management. The main emphasis is placed on cultivating fundamental transferable competencies in students. The importance of continuous monitoring and evaluation is stressed to guarantee the success of AI integration in university teaching and learning. This enables regular as- sessments of the impact of AI on teaching practices and student performance.


This study investigated faculty members' perceptions of the use of ChatGPT and its implications in higher education. The research was conducted at a state university in the Philippines. Participants in this study were selected using purposive sampling, employing a homogenous sampling method. All re- spondents are lecturers and faculty members from the aforementioned state university in the Philippines.

During the planning phase, potential participants were informed about the study, and the researcher clarified the purpose and scope of the research to ensure transparency. The primary data collection method involved an online survey with five statements related to faculty perceptions regarding ChatGPT and its implications in higher education. Additionally, a face-to-face interview was con- ducted with a key informant—an expert in Artificial Intelligence in Education. A formal consent form and a permission document for research were established to formally request data collection within the university. A data privacy state- ment was prepared and provided to participants before distributing the online survey forms. The collected data underwent exploratory qualitative analysis us- ing an online qualitative research tool. Thematic analysis, following Braun and Clarke's (2006) guidelines, were employed to identify patterns, themes, and insights within the responses.

Ethical considerations included obtaining informed consent from participants, ensuring data privacy, and obtaining formal permission from the university to conduct the research. The study was conducted in three phases: planning, data collection, and data analysis, with a realistic timeline established to ensure the efficient execution of each phase. Limitations included the generalizability of findings, given the specific context of the state university in the Philippines. Additionally, the study relied on self-reported perceptions, introducing a subjec- tive element to the data.

Results and Discussion

Based on feedback from 20 academic staff members at a state university, it is evident that ChatGPT shows promise as an educational tool for post-second- ary institutions. Nevertheless, it is imperative to tackle concerns pertaining to precision and morality and establish procedures prior to incorporating it into the university environment. The data indicates that a substantial proportion of participants do not utilize ChatGPT for research endeavors. While some faculty members utilize it, they lack formal training and have self-educated themselves through online tutorials and practical use. Despite its limitations, ChatGPT can assist educators in generating and evaluating data efficiently, especially when resources are limited. Limited experience and resources with ChatGPT present a notable challenge. The data suggests that many faculty members are unfa- miliar with ChatGPT, primarily due to time and resource constraints. Academic staff members face heavy workloads due to research commitments, adminis- trative tasks, and teaching responsibilities, leaving them with insufficient time to explore ChatGPT's various applications. Faculty members have expressed concerns about their proficiency in using ChatGPT, with one noting its reliance on programming techniques, which necessitates a learning process for senior academic staff. Additionally, some faculty members lack confidence in their ability to utilize new technology effectively and question the accuracy of data provided by ChatGPT.

Furthermore, several participants have not yet evaluated ChatGPT's suitability for their courses, hindering its integration into instructional activities. In higher education, the application of AI is met with skepticism among most research participants. This skepticism is primarily due to their limited knowledge of its implementation, inadequate access to resources, lack of self-assurance, and little incentive to acquire expertise in its use. Concerns are also raised about ChatGPT's potential to make errors, misinterpret instructions, and provide inac- curate data. Many survey participants are hesitant to embrace ChatGPT or AI in higher education due to the absence of established ethical guidelines by aca- demic institutions. Additionally, while some features are available for free, the full range of functionalities requires a recurring monthly fee. Faculty members have provided feedback on the integration of ChatGPT in higher education, emphasizing its accessibility and user-friendliness for tasks like information generation, essay review, and project evaluation. At a state university, some participants are using ChatGPT for scholarly purposes. Common uses include verifying assignments, creating templates, reviewing essays, finding research inspiration, developing instructional materials, and supporting research writing and knowledge acquisition efforts. As indicated by the sixth participant (P6) of the study:

"Actually, ChatGPT can really be beneficial if used correctly. From the point of view of a student, writing long essays and papers will be easy. They will learn from the info they can get from AI like ChatGPT. Decision-making systems will be more accurate if AI is integrated.”

A significant number of participants instruct various disciplines, including edu- cation, social sciences, and information technology. Some members of the aca- demic community are open to using ChatGPT in higher education, believing that implementing deep learning methods can enhance students' comprehension of subjects and prepare them for professional careers. Despite initial reservations, ChatGPT has proven useful in creating educational materials and assessing students' written assignments. According to feedback from faculty members, integrating Artificial Intelligence into tertiary education is a viable prospect, and ChatGPT can have a substantial positive impact. One respondent stated, "AI is already here and here to stay," suggesting that strict regulations from the administration won't hinder students' adoption of new technology, which can equip them with essential skills and knowledge for employment. P11 also noted ChatGPT's potential as a utility tool in higher education:

"I have not exhaustively explored the utility of this tool in higher educa- tion but in some of my uses the tool can potentially be used to assist the faculty in marking students' assignments, essays, etc.; also, it can be used to find ways on how to clearly communicate the theories or concepts to the students; you can request assistance from the tool to present the theory in a simplified discussion; thirdly, the tool can also be used to synthesize a long discussion so that only those important points can be highlighted; it can also provide an immediate feedback to queries that students may raise in the class.”

The utilization of ChatGPT shows promise in enhancing the educational ex-

perience for students by providing convenient access to relevant information and supporting their decision-making processes. Educators can benefit from ChatGPT in evaluating academic assignments, conveying theoretical and con- ceptual knowledge to learners, and promptly addressing student inquiries. Par- ticipants have noted that ChatGPT has the potential to reduce the time spent on classroom preparation and improve the quality of educational resources, de- pending on the user's proficiency level, as stated by P16: "It can make specific parts of our workflow faster." Furthermore, ChatGPT functions as a proficient automated tutor, assisting learners with basic inquiries and offering evidence- based perspectives and relevant literature on specific subjects.

The use of ChatGPT may raise concerns related to academic dishonesty, inad- equate safeguards for intellectual property, overreliance on technological tools, decline in self-directed learning, and hindrance to the development of critical thinking skills. Most participants agree that relying on ChatGPT in the future could lead to dependency on the technology and hinder their academic prog- ress. Additionally, some participants emphasized the problematic aspects of ChatGPT due to its lack of uniformity, making it susceptible to the spread of mis- information and deceptive content. One respondent stressed the importance of educators recognizing and appreciating the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education. As explained by P9, people who use it may rely too heavily on ChatGPT's answers and not make sufficient effort on their own. While this is an impressive AI tool, it is still prone to errors. Users should maintain critical think- ing and analysis to identify fake news and misinformation.

Participants stressed the importance of creating an environment that promotes the growth of AI while ensuring that students continue to acquire essential skills. Educators face a significant challenge in establishing a conducive learning en- vironment that fosters the development of crucial competencies while integrat- ing technology. Most participants express concerns about the potential misuse of ChatGPT for academic dishonesty and the spread of inaccurate information among students due to the lack of established ethical protocols.

Consequently, using thematic analysis, the first prominent theme, character- ized as the perception of ChatGPT usage in courses, emerged. The data re- vealed the following insights: (1) Varied Feedback: The data shows a wide range of feedback from participants regarding the use of ChatGPT in courses, indicating diverse perspectives among faculty members. Both positive and negative feedback indicate a multifaceted and subtle comprehension of the ef- ficacy and worth of ChatGPT in education; (2) Potential Benefits: Participants recognize the prospective advantages of ChatGPT as an instructional tool in higher education courses in the Philippines. The perceived benefits of these enhancements extend to both students and faculty members, suggesting the potential to improve teaching and learning experiences; (3) Negative Percep- tion and Distrust: A considerable proportion of participants exhibited unfavor- able perceptions of ChatGPT, predominantly attributing their lack of trust as the primary factor. The negative sentiment is ascribed to participants' limited knowledge and inadequate access to the ChatGPT application, which under- scores potential obstacles to acceptance and adoption; (4) Positive Perception Based on Experience: Conversely, some participants had positive perceptions of ChatGPT, which were influenced by their prior utilization of it in their profes- sional domain. This indicates that previous exposure to ChatGPT can have a beneficial impact on faculty members' views and attitudes towards its utilization in educational environments; (5) Perceptual Complexity: The thematic analysis highlights the intricate nature of faculty members' perceptions regarding the use of ChatGPT in courses. Perceptions are shaped by variables such as past encounters, availability of knowledge, and personal dispositions towards tech- nology in education.

The use of AI in educational institutions to enhance students' skills and compe- tencies for the modern industry represents a form of social change. Integrating AI as an innovative educational tool is a vital skill that contemporary educators should possess. Despite the widespread use of AI, it remains a crucial task for educators to create a pedagogical environment that encourages the develop- ment and application of these proficiencies among students. This underscores the importance of artificial intelligence in expanding the information resources available for higher education institutions, as emphasized by P11 in the study:

I could not foresee it that way. Social change will still be initiated by human agencies. I mean, it is still within the decision-making process of the members of the society that can initiate social change. The use of ChatGPT may challenge education and educators but it may not impact the society as a whole. It may or may not change educational processes within an institution but may not affect the society in gen- eral.”

The use of AI tools has the potential to impact the development of critical think- ing skills in students, as they might overly rely on it for various tasks. Educators must devise strategies to create an academic environment that encourages the acquisition of these competencies. This may influence the subject matter expertise used to achieve educational goals in higher education. Despite the availability of AI resources, it is expected that instructors will remain vigilant and adhere to established procedures. This research reveals that educators have shown diligence and adaptability in their teaching approaches, despite the challenges posed by the presence of artificial intelligence. Feedback from academic professionals highlights the obstacles they face while striving to pro- vide comprehensive education to students. However, it is crucial to maintain a positive outlook when addressing these challenges. The results suggest that a reassessment of evaluation methods incorporating artificial intelligence is nec- essary to gauge their potential impact on enhancing students' competencies.

The use of ChatGPT holds promise in improving the educational experience by enabling students to access relevant information conveniently and enhancing their decision-making processes. Educators can use this tool to assess aca- demic assignments, impart theoretical and conceptual knowledge, and swiftly address student inquiries. Some participants have noted that implementing ChatGPT can reduce classroom preparation time and improve the quality of educational resources, depending on the user's proficiency level, as mentioned by P16: "It can make specific parts of our workflow faster."

Furthermore, ChatGPT serves as a proficient automated tutor, assisting learn- ers with basic inquiries and providing evidence-based perspectives and rel- evant literature on specific subjects. Like Wikipedia, this system allows for per- sonalized and efficient information retrieval, but there is a risk of coming across inaccurate data, as highlighted by P11:

"When incorporated into the teaching-learning process, this tool can act as the faculties-in-charge (FICs) by addressing students' queries, questions, or clarifications. Beauty lies in its ability to provide instant information. The students will not delay for the FIC to address their inquiries, explanations, or questions."

The ChatGPT platform has the potential to facilitate classroom discussions and foster the development of analytical skills. It can also serve as an educational aid, assisting educators in guiding students who struggle with complex con- cepts. ChatGPT can efficiently verify activities, generate summaries, and ana- lyze data promptly, making it a valuable educational resource that can enhance students' research skills and boost their confidence in producing reliable data. With proper training and data validation, this tool can be effectively used in ad- vanced academic settings. However, faculty members commonly express concerns about the downside of GPT in higher education, including worries about intellectual dishonesty, un- ethical use, and students becoming overly reliant on technology, potentially bypassing essential learning processes. As highlighted by P13, the implemen- tation of ChatGPT in higher education can have both advantages and disad- vantages, similar to a double-edged sword. P13 stated, "ChatGPT is a double- edged sword, and its impact on education depends on the users. That's why teachers or faculty members should help develop students' critical thinking skills."

Faculty members' responses are based on their prior experiences with students using ChatGPT in the previous academic year. A common consensus among faculty members is that students' use of AI may lead to a reduction in self- directed learning and the potential for academic dishonesty by presenting oth- ers' work as their own. The integration of AI in education raises concerns about bypassing critical learning processes. It can be seen as delegating mental work that the brain is supposed to undertake during the learning process, poten- tially hindering the development of cognitive capacities, particularly in contexts where enhancing students' cognitive abilities is a primary goal. While AI can op- timize and facilitate research and writing processes, it poses challenges to the cultivation of essential skills like analytical reasoning, technical composition, and meticulous editing. Participants highlight several potential drawbacks of ChatGPT, including academic dishonesty, inadequate safeguards for intellec- tual property, overreliance on technology, reduced self-directed learning, and hindered development of critical thinking skills.

Many participants share concerns that the increased use of ChatGPT may foster reliance on the technology and hinder scholarly advancement. Overde- pendence on AI tools may reduce engagement in independent learning, as noted by P10: "Overreliance on technology, potentially reducing engagement in independent learning." P10 highlighted the potential downside of relying too heavily on AI tools, which could lead to decreased engagement in independent learning. Furthermore, the lack of uniformity in ChatGPT's responses makes it susceptible to the spread of misinformation and deceptive content. Participants stress the importance of educators recognizing and appreciating the impact of AI in education, while also establishing an environment that promotes AI growth while ensuring students continue to acquire fundamental skills. They express concerns about potential misuse of ChatGPT for academic dishonesty and the dissemination of inaccurate information among students due to the absence of established ethical protocols.

Furthermore, the research unveiled a significant second theme categorized as the implications of ChatGPT in education activities. The data showed the following: (1) Advanced Learning Techniques and Improved Understanding: ChatGPT is recognized for its potential to generate advanced learning tech- niques, contributing to improved understanding of academic material among students. This suggests a positive impact on students' preparedness for future career endeavors; (2) Facilitation of Discourse and Analytical Proficiencies: The use of ChatGPT facilitates discourse within the classroom and promotes the advancement of analytical proficiencies among students. Educators can use ChatGPT to assist students in comprehending complex ideas, thereby enhanc- ing their analytical skills; (3) Instructional Tool for Assisting Students: ChatGPT serves as an instructional tool for educators, enabling them to provide addition- al guidance and support to students who require assistance in their academic pursuits; (4) Authentication, Synopsis Generation, and Information Scrutiny: ChatGPT demonstrates capabilities in authentication, synopsis generation, and information scrutiny, enhancing research capabilities and reinforcing confi- dence in generating reliable data. This highlights its potential to streamline re- search processes. This gives students confidence to write research papers; (5) Potential Benefits and Concerns for Introverted Students: The integration of AI, represented by ChatGPT, holds promise in facilitating the learning process for introverted students by providing alternative avenues for engagement and par- ticipation. However, there may be concerns regarding privacy and data security that need to be addressed; (6) Streamlining Repetitive Tasks for Educators: ChatGPT can streamline repetitive administrative tasks for educators, freeing up time to focus more on instructional activities and student support, thereby improving overall efficiency in educational settings; (7) Fostering Self-Directed Critical Thinking Abilities: The use of ChatGPT has the potential to foster the development of self-directed critical thinking abilities in students. By engaging with AI-driven resources, students are empowered to think independently and critically evaluate information, which is crucial in today's digital age; (8) Consid- eration of Ethical and Privacy Implications: Alongside the benefits, it's important to consider ethical implications and privacy concerns associated with the use of AI in education. Safeguards must be in place to protect students' privacy and ensure responsible use of AI technologies in educational settings.

The utilization of ChatGPT may present challenges in education, but its broader societal impact may be limited. As expressed by P17, the direction of change depends on how educators choose to address it. There is a potential scenario where employers may require a certain level of AI competency for job candi- dates, potentially instigating a societal shift. The effectiveness of technology integration in education depends on user proficiency, with educators playing a crucial role in helping students develop analytical and evaluative skills. While ChatGPT can serve as an alternative to conventional search engines, it also has the potential to foster excessive dependence among users. Promoting criti- cal thinking and inclusivity among students can facilitate social change.

Regarding faculty perceptions of using ChatGPT in their courses, the study's results indicate mixed feedback. While it shows potential as an educational tool for higher education in the Philippines, some respondents expressed distrust due to limited knowledge and access to ChatGPT. However, certain partici- pants who had prior experience with ChatGPT in their professional field had more favorable perceptions. The study's participants are aware of ChatGPT's existence and are willing to engage with it for their academic pursuits. Assum- ing appropriate ethical guidelines and adherence to academic protocol, the uni- versity can proceed with its utilization. It is crucial to reevaluate assessment protocols incorporating artificial intelligence to gauge their potential impact on enhancing students' skills. Regarding the implications of ChatGPT in education activities, the study's results suggest that it can introduce advanced learning techniques, potentially improving students' comprehension of academic mate- rial and accelerating their preparedness for future careers. ChatGPT can fa- cilitate classroom discussions and enhance analytical skills. It serves as an instructional tool, helping educators assist students in grasping complex ideas and quickly authenticating actions, generating summaries, and analyzing information.

Furthermore, ChatGPT can act as an educational tool, enhancing students' research capabilities and boosting their confidence in producing reliable data. Artificial Intelligence in education shows potential for introverted students, au- tomating educators' routine tasks, and promoting independent critical thinking abilities. However, it can also hinder students' critical thinking skills and impede their ability to promote social change.

Regarding ChatGPT's ability to influence social change, the study suggests that its implementation coincides with an ongoing societal transformation. Aware- ness of artificial intelligence among individuals and its continuous development contribute to this shift. The impact of ChatGPT on broader social change will depend on how educators and institutions choose to harness its potential in the context of ongoing societal changes. One significant aspect of societal change is the integration of new technologies into people's daily lives, which serve as tools that reshape their lifestyle. Contrary to the prevailing belief, technology does not determine modern society, as stated by Castells in 1996. This asser- tion remains valid, emphasizing that technology consists solely of tools that as- sist humans, while society itself can be seen as a type of technology.

In addition, the thematic analysis discovered a noteworthy third theme, which was classified as the ChatGPT's Role in Driving Social Change. The data re- vealed the following information: (1) Correspondence with Societal Transfor- mations: The results suggest that educators adopting ChatGPT align with current societal changes, specifically regarding the integration of technology into daily routines; (2) The incorporation of new technologies, like ChatGPT, into people's daily routines is influenced by the presence of artificial intelligence and ongoing societal changes. This leads to changes in lifestyle; (3) The incorpora- tion of technology, such as ChatGPT, is vital in influencing societal principles and promoting global interconnectedness, as it enhances human cognitive and physical capabilities; (4) The use of technology aims to achieve global intercon- nectedness and promote societal transformation; (5) Technology as a Catalyst for Lifestyle Modification: ChatGPT and other technologies serve as catalysts to modify individuals' lifestyle and daily routines.

This study delved into the use of technology with the objective of achieving global interconnectedness and promoting societal transformation. Moreover, the findings revealed that ChatGPT and other technologies serve as catalysts for lifestyle modification, exerting influence on individuals' daily routines and overall way of life.


The research findings shed light on the diverse perceptions of faculty members regarding the usage of ChatGPT in courses. Although there are some positive aspects, such as its potential as an educational tool, there are also concerns regarding trust and the long-term impacts on students. Integrating ChatGPT into educational activities shows potential for enhancing learning methods, promoting discussions, and enhancing research abilities. Nevertheless, it is of utmost importance to exercise prudence in order to uphold ethical principles and avoid compromising critical thinking abilities. Furthermore, the adoption of ChatGPT corresponds to current societal shifts, emphasizing the importance of faculty competence in leveraging technology to promote beneficial social transformation. The integration of technology and society seeks to enhance human abilities, promote global interconnectedness, and facilitate profound societal changes. Ogburn's viewpoint from 1922 emphasizes the crucial sig- nificance of technology in molding society and its fundamental principles. In order to successfully incorporate artificial intelligence into education, it is crucial for educators and administrators to be dedicated to developing students' abili- ties to analyze and evaluate information. The level of expertise demonstrated by technology users is crucial in determining the success of these endeavors.

Declaration of AI Assistance in the Writing Process

During the preparation of this work, the author used Grammarly and Prowriting aid, Quilbot / Grammar Checker and Paraphrase for grammar checking, para- phrasing, and citation making. After using this tool/service, the author reviewed and edited the content as needed and takes full responsibility for the content of. the publication.

This section is adopted from https://www.elsevier.com/journals/resources-poli-cy/0301-4207/guide-for-authors.


Anderson, J., Rainie, L., & Luchisinger, A. (2018). Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Humans. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/12/10/ artificial-intelligence-and-the-future-of-humans/

Atlas, S. (2023). ChatGPT for higher education and professional development: A guide to conversational AI. https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cba_ facpu bs/ 548

Baker, S. T., & Smith, L., and Anissa, N. (2019). Educ-AI-tion rebooted? Ex- ploring the future of artificial intelligence in schools and colleges. Nesta Foundation website. https://www.nesta.org.uk/report/education-reboot- ed/

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2008). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Castells, M. M. (1996). The rise of the network society. The Rise of the Network Society. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, 158-163.

Chan , C., & Hu , W. (2023). Students’ voices on generative AI: Perceptions, benefits, and challenges in higher education. https:// doi. org/10.48550/arXiv.2305.00290

Chan, C. (2023). Is AI changing the rules of academic misconduct? An in-depth look at students’ perceptions of ’AI-giarism’. https:// doi.org/arxiv.org/abs/2306.03358

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). (n.d). Artificial Intelligence Road Map. https://innovate.dti.gov.ph/resources/roadmaps/artificial-intelligence/5

Duan, Y., Edwards, J., & Dwivedi, Y. (2019). Artificial intelligence for decision making in the era of Big Data – evolution, challenges and research agen- da. International Journal of Information Management, 48. 63-71. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.01.021

EDUCAUSE. (2018). NMC Horizon Report: 2018 Higher Education Edition. https://library.educause.edu/~/media/files/library/2018/8/2018horizonre port.pdf

Guey, L. (2021). Closing the AI Skills Gap Requires a Whole-of-Society Ap- proach. Closing the AI Skills Gap Requires a Whole-of-Society Ap- proach. Journal of Public and International Affairs. https://jpia.princeton. edu/news/closing-ai-skills-gap-requires-whole-society-approach

Luckin, R. (2017). Towards artificial intelligence-based assessment systems.Nature Human Behaviour. https://doi. org/10. 1038/ s41562- 016- 0028

McCarthy, J., Minsky, M., Rochester, N., & Shanon, C. (1955). A Proposal For The Darthmouth Summer Research Project on Artifical Intelligence. AI Magazine, 27(4), 12. https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v27i4.1904

Nilsson, N. J. (2012). Biographical Memoir of Jogn McCarthy 1927-2011. Na- tional Academy of Sciences. https://www.nasonline.org/publications/ biographical-memoirs/memoir-pdfs/mccarthy-john.pdf

Ogburn, W. (1922). Social change with Respect to culture and Original Nature. B.W Huebsch, Inc.

Smith, B. C. (2019). The Promise of Artificial Intelligence Reckoning and Judge- ment. MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-020-00972-

Topol, E. J. (2019). High-performance medicine: the convergence of human and artificial intelligence. Nature Medicine, 44-56. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41591-018-0300-7

UNESCO. (2021). AI and Education Guidance for Policy Makers. https://doi. org/10.54675/PCSP7350

UNESCO. (2022, October 15). Recommendations on the Ethics of Artificial In- telligencehttps://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000381137

UNESCO. (2023, October 15). Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. https://www. unesco.org/en/artificial-intelligence/recommendation-ethics

International Journal on Open and Distance e-Learning, Vol. 9 No. 2, December 2023 Issue